PEAT — an organic fuel formed by the partial decomposition of organic matter, primarily plant material in wetlands. This is a sedimentary loose rock, which is used as a combustible mineral. Formed by the accumulation of residues of mosses that underwent incomplete decomposition in wetland.

The bog is characterized by deposition partially decayed organic matter on the soil surface, which later turns into peat. Used as a fuel, fertilizer, combustible material, as it contains up to 60% carbon; as a fertilizer and as a thermal insulation material in construction.

The main property of peat is the accumulation of carbon and photosynthesis products. Putting it in the soil helps to improve its moisture/air permeability, porosity, microbiological and nutritional composition. In addition, peat is able to
heal the soil, reduce the level of nitrates in it, weaken the effect of pesticides. Due to the content of humic and amino acids, it improves plant growth and development.

Peat improves land fertility. For use as a component of soil mixtures for indoor and greenhouse plants, peat sod is weathered in low and wide heaps for three years, since newly lifted peat sods contain substances (acids) harmful to most plants. Peat and soils containing it serve as a natural filter for natural water, effectively absorbing heavy metals and other impurities.

Peat has an important ecological function, accumulating photosynthesis products and thus accumulating atmospheric carbon. After drainage of the peat deposit, due to the access of oxygen, in the peat begins active work of aerobic microorganisms that decompose its organic matter. This process is called mineralization, during which carbon dioxide is released at a rate that exceeds the rate of its accumulation in the undisturbed swamp.